Embark on a captivating journey into the world of manufacturing industries, the lifeblood of modern economies, with this comprehensive guide to Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes. Whether you're aiming to ace your upcoming CBSE board exams or simply seek to broaden your understanding of this crucial aspect of geography, this blog post is your ultimate resource.
We've meticulously crafted a collection of detailed and easy-to-follow notes, aligned with the NCERT syllabus for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6, to equip you with a thorough understanding of manufacturing industries. These notes, conveniently available in a downloadable PDF format, will serve as your trusty companion as you delve into the intricacies of this fascinating topic.
Prepare to explore the diverse types of manufacturing industries, their location factors, and their profound impact on the global economy. Discover the intricacies of iron and steel, textile, and other key industries that shape our world.
|Social Science (Geography)
|CBSE and State Boards
"Whether you think you can or you think you can't, you're right."- Henry Ford
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes
Table of Contents
Importance of Manufacturing
The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of general and economic development because:
- Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture.
- It helps in reducing the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them with jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- It helps eradicate unemployment and poverty in our country.
- It helps in reducing regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
- The export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and helps in bringing foreign exchange.
- Countries with large numbers of manufacturing industries are prosperous.
Agricultural sector and manufacturing sector move hand in hand
- The given statement means that agricultural and manufacturing industries are not exclusive of each other and are quite interconnected.
- Agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity and efficiency.
- Agro-industries are units that add value to agricultural produce, intermediates, and/or residues by processing or improving storability or by providing links from the farm to the market or part thereof.
- Industries depend on agriculture for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, PVC pipes, machines, tools, etc to farmers.
- So, the development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries have not only assisted agriculturalists and farmers in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient and far better.
Factors responsible for the location of industries
- Availability of raw materials – This factor is more important for heavy industries like iron and steel, cement industry, etc.
- Availability of power resources – Proximity to power resources like coal, and electricity will attract more industries.
- Availability of water – Almost all industries require a huge quantity of water.
- Availability of favorable climate.
- The availability of skilled and unskilled laborers attracts more industries.
- Proximity to market – This reduces transport costs and delays.
- Infrastructural facilities – Like banking, transport, communication, etc. attract more industries.
- Government policy – Tax benefits and subsidies on inputs play an important role in industrial location.
Classification of Industries
Based on the source of raw materials
- Agro-based industries (eg. Cotton, woolen, jute, silk, etc.)
- Mineral-based industries (eg. Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, etc.)
Based on the main role
- Basic or key industries: These industries supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods. Examples: iron and steel industry, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
- Consumer industries: These industries produce goods for direct use by consumers. Examples: sugar, paper, toothpaste, fans, etc.
Based on capital investment
- Small scale industry: Maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit is ₹ 1 Crore.
- Large scale industry: When investment in the assets of a unit is more than ₹ 1 Crore.
Based on ownership
- Public sector industries: Public sector industries are owned and operated by government agencies. For example BHEL, SAIL, etc.
- Private sector industries: Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur industries, etc.
- Joint sector industries: Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. For example Oil India Limited (OIL).
- Cooperative sector industries: Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. They pool the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately. For example Sugar industry, coir industry, etc.
Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
- Heavy industries such as iron and steel
- Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical goods industries.
Cotton Textile Industry
In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton-growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of availability of
- raw cotton,
- transport including accessible port facilities,
- moist climate, etc.
Factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:
- proximity of the jute-producing areas,
- inexpensive water transport,
- supported by a good network of railways, roadways, and waterways to facilitate the movement of raw materials to the mills,
- abundant water for processing raw jute,
- cheap labor from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh.
- Kolkata as a large urban center provides banking, insurance, and port facilities for the export of jute goods.
In recent years, there has been a tendency for the mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra. This is because
- The cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
- The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
- The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
Iron and Steel Industry
Iron ore, coking coal, and limestone are required in a ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.
Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries because of:
- low cost of iron ore,
- high-grade raw materials in proximity,
- cheap labor
- vast growth potential in the home market.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
Industries cause environmental degradation in the following ways:
- Air pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems.
- Water pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemicals, textiles, dyeing, petroleum refineries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
- Thermal pollution: Hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
- Radioactive waste: wastes from nuclear power plants cause cancer, birth defects, miscarriages, etc.
- Noise pollution: Results in irritation, hypertension, and hearing impairment.
Control of Environmental Degradation
Ways to prevent environmental degradation by industries:
- Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of fresh water.
- Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
- Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released into rivers and ponds.
- Overdrawing of groundwater needs to be regulated legally.
- Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks into factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, etc.
- Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
- Machinery and generators should be fitted with silencers.
|Must Read: Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Important Questions & Answers
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 NCERT Underlined PDF
List of Map Items for Class 10 SST 2023-24
Hope you liked these Notes on Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Geography. Please share this with your friends and do comment if you have any doubts/suggestions to share.