Manufacturing Industries: Demystified with Class 10 Questions and Answers

Embark on a captivating journey into the world of manufacturing industries, the lifeblood of modern economies, with this comprehensive guide to Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Questions and Answers. Designed to complement the NCERT syllabus for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6, this blog post is your ultimate resource for mastering this crucial aspect of geography.

We've meticulously compiled a collection of carefully curated questions and detailed answers, covering a wide range of topics related to manufacturing industries. Whether you're aiming for a perfect score in your upcoming CBSE board exams or simply seeking to solidify your understanding of this fascinating subject, these questions and answers will serve as your trusty companion.

This comprehensive Q&A guide is conveniently available in a downloadable PDF format, ensuring you have easy access to valuable practice materials anytime, anywhere. So, grab your notebooks, sharpen your pencils, and get ready to tackle manufacturing industries with confidence!

manufacturing industries class 10 questions answers

SubjectSocial Science (Geography)
BoardCBSE and State Boards
Chapter No.6
Chapter NameManufacturing Industries
TypeImportant Questions & Answers

"Do not wait for opportunities to come. Create them."

- Shigeo Takeuchi
Q. No. 1) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

i. Manufacturing industries fall in _____ and agriculture in _____.

a. Primary, Secondary sector

b. Secondary, Tertiary sector

c. Primary, Tertiary sector

d. Secondary, Primary sector

Ans. Option (d)

ii. What is the contribution of the manufacturing sector to GDP?

a. 17%

b. 27%

c. 10%

d. 21% in total of 31%

Ans. Option (a)

iii. NMCC refers to

a. National Marine Cadets Corps

b. Naval Military Corps Council

c. National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council

d. New Millennium Corps Council

Ans. Option (c) [Its aim is to improve the productivity of the manufacturing sector.]

iv. Which one of the following factors plays the most important role in the location of an industry in a particular region?

a. Raw material

b. Market

c. Least production cost

d. Transport

Ans. Option (c)

v. Name the industry classified on the basis of capital investment.

a. Joint sector

b. Private sector

c. Large scale

d. Public sector

Ans. Option (c)

Classification of industries on the basis of capital investment:

  • Small-scale industry: If the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit is Rs. 1 crore or less than Rs. 1 crore, it is called a small-scale industry.
  • Large-scale industry: If the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit is more than Rs. 1 crore, it is called a large-scale industry.

vi. Which one of the following is a joint sector industry?



c. OIL


Ans. Option (c) [OIL – Oil India Limited]

vii. Which of the following options does not help in modernizing agriculture?

a. Manufacturing farm equipment

b. Providing unskilled labor force

c. Supplying fertilizers and pesticides

d. Providing tube well pumps and sprinkler

Ans. Option (b)

viii. In order to attract foreign manufacturing firms, a country needs to develop _____.

a. Agrarian facilities

b. Cultivable lands

c. Media facilities

d. Infrastructure facilities

Ans. Option (d)

ix. _____ is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e., from raw material to the highest value-added products.

a. Sugar industry

b. Textile industry

c. Iron and steel industry

d. Cement industry

Ans. Option (b)

x. Organic chemical plants are located near

a. Software parks

b. Petrochemical plants

c. Thermal power plants

d. Technoparks

Ans. Option (b)

xi. Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computers, etc.?

a. Steel

b. Aluminium

c. Electronic

d. Information technology

Ans. Option (c)

Q. No. 2) ‘Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of general and economic development.’ Examine the statement in the context of India.

Ans. The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of general and economic development because:

  1. Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture.
  2. It helps in reducing the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them with jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  3. It helps eradicate unemployment and poverty in our country.
  4. It helps in reducing regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  5. The export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and helps in bringing foreign exchange.
  6. Countries with large numbers of manufacturing industries are prosperous.
Q. No. 3) 'Agricultural sector and manufacturing sector move hand in hand.' Justify the above statement with suitable examples.
Explain with examples how industries give a boost to the agriculture sector.


  • The given statement means that agricultural and manufacturing industries are not exclusive of each other and are quite interconnected.
  • Agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity and efficiency.
  • Agro-industries are units that add value to agricultural produce, intermediates, and/or residues by processing or improving storability or by providing links from the farm to the market or part thereof.
  • Industries depend on agriculture for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, PVC pipes, machines, tools, etc to farmers.
  • So, the development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries have not only assisted agriculturalists and farmers in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient and far better.
Q. No. 4) “Industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand.” Validate the statement.


  • After an industrial activity starts in a town, urbanization follows.
  • The industry provides employment to the people of the area.
  • Population migrates from rural hinterlands to seek jobs.
  • Housing and transport facilities are developed to accommodate these people.
  • Other infrastructural developments take place leading to the growth and development of the town into a city.
  • Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labor, consultants, financial advice, etc. to the industry.
  • Thus, industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand.
Q. No. 5) What are agglomeration economies?

Ans. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban center (like banking, insurance, transport, labor, consultants and financial advice, etc.) is known as agglomeration economies.

Q. No. 6) Describe the various physical and human factors responsible for the location of industries.

Ans. Physical factors:

  1. Availability of raw materials – This factor is more important for heavy industries like iron and steel, cement industry, etc.
  2. Availability of power resources – Proximity to power resources like coal, and electricity will attract more industries.
  3. Availability of water – Almost all industries require a huge quantity of water.
  4. Availability of favorable climate.

Human factors:

  1. The availability of skilled and unskilled laborers attracts more industries.
  2. Proximity to market – This reduces transport costs and delays.
  3. Infrastructural facilities – Like banking, transport, communication, etc. attract more industries.
  4. Government policy – Tax benefits and subsidies on inputs play an important role in industrial location.
Q. No. 7) 'Determining an ideal industrial location is a challenging undertaking.' Examine the above statement and elucidate.


  • Industrial locations are complex in nature as they are influenced by the availability of raw materials, labor, capital, power, market, etc.
  • Manufacturing tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at a lower cost, which is the key determining factor.
  • Industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand. Cities provide markets and as well as services like banking, insurance, transport, labor, consultants, etc. to the industry.
  • Pre-1947, most industries were located near ports from the point of view of overseas trade.
  • Government policies and specialized labor also influence the location of industries.
Q. No. 8) Classify industries on the basis of the source of raw materials.

Ans. Classification of industries on the basis of source of raw materials:

  • Agro-based industries (eg. Cotton, woolen, jute, silk, etc.)
  • Mineral-based industries (eg. Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, etc.)
Q. No. 9) Classify industries on the basis of their main role. How are they different from each other?

Ans. Classification of industries on the basis of the main role:

  • Basic or key industries: These industries supply their products as raw materials to manufacture other goods. Examples: iron and steel industry, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
  • Consumer industries: These industries produce goods for direct use by consumers. Examples: sugar, paper, toothpaste, fans, etc.
Q. No. 10) What are cooperative sector industries? Which industry, due to its seasonal nature, is ideally suited to the cooperative sector?

Ans. Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. They pool the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately.

The sugar industry is ideally suited to the cooperative sector.

Q. No. 11) Classify industries on the basis of ownership.

Ans. Classification of industries on the basis of ownership:

  • Public sector industries: Public sector industries are owned and operated by government agencies. For example BHEL, SAIL, etc.
  • Private sector industries: Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur industries, etc.
  • Joint sector industries: Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. For example Oil India Limited (OIL).
  • Cooperative sector industries: Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. They pool the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately. For example Sugar industry, coir industry, etc.
Q. No. 12) Why is Aluminium smelting the second most important metallurgical industry in India? Explain.

Ans. Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India because:

  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable, and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils, and wires.
  • It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc, and lead in a number of industries.
Q. No. 13) Name the two important requirements in Aluminium Smelting Industry.

Ans. Two important requirements are

  • Assured source of raw material (Bauxite)
  • A regular supply of electricity.
Q. No. 14) India does not have any reserves of which significant fertilizer element is used in the fertilizer industry and is entirely imported.

Ans. Potash or potassium compounds.

Q. No. 15) The elder sister of Namit is employed in the IT  industry in the electronic capital of India. Name the city.

Ans. Bengaluru.

Q. No. 16) Why is copper mainly used in electrical cables and electronic industries?

Ans. Because of being malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity.

Q. No. 17) Examine the multi-pronged aspects of the Information Technology and Electronics Industry.


  • The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers, and many other equipments required by the telecommunication industry.
  • Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centers for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, and Coimbatore.
  • 18 software technology parks provide single window service and high data communication facilities to software experts.
  • A major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
  • It is encouraging to know that 30 percent of the people employed in this sector are women.
  • This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast-growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.
  • The continuing growth in hardware and software is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.
Q. No. 18) Describe how industries are responsible for environmental degradation.

Ans. Industries cause environmental degradation in the following ways:

  • Air pollution: High proportion of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and carbon monoxide create air pollution. Suspended particulate matters also create problems.
  • Water pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents cause water pollution. Paper, pulp, chemicals, textiles, dyeing, petroleum refineries, etc. are the main culprits of water pollution.
  • Thermal pollution: Hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Radioactive waste: wastes from nuclear power plants cause cancer, birth defects, miscarriages, etc.
  • Noise pollution: Results in irritation, hypertension, and hearing impairment.
Q. No. 19) Suggest ways through which the problem of environmental degradation by industries can be resolved.
‘Environmental degradation has been everywhere.’ Explain the ways to prevent environmental degradation.

Ans. Ways to prevent environmental degradation by industries:

  • Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of fresh water.
  • Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
  • Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released into rivers and ponds.
  • Overdrawing of groundwater needs to be regulated legally.
  • Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks into factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, etc.
  • Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
  • Machinery and generators should be fitted with silencers.
Q. No. 20) ‘The challenge of sustainable development requires control over industrial pollution.’ Substantiate the statement with examples.


  • On the one hand, Industries lead to extensive industrial growth and expansion, and on the other hand, these are also the cause of environmental degeneration which prompt different type of air, and water pollution.
  • There is an increasing requirement to use a further sustainable model.
  • Industries must produce eco-friendly products and dump waste responsibly.
  • The use of the latest technology can help industries to control pollution and lead toward a sustainable mode of operation.
  • Industries can use- The reuse-recycle-refuse approach.
  • If necessary, dump waste in specified places, away from the land and water sources, for example- before dumping treat it well and make it useful for other than drinking purposes, and stop using thermal plants in some of the locations.
Q. No. 21) What steps have been taken by NTPC toward environmental protection?

Ans. NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) has taken the following steps toward environmental protection:

  • Optimum utilization of equipment adopting the latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization.
  • Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system, and liquid waste management.
  • Ecological monitoring, reviews, and online database management for all its power stations.
Must Read: Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes
Manufacturing Industries Class 10 NCERT Underlined PDF
List of Map Items for Class 10 SST 2023-24
Must Read:
Class 10 Revision Notes
Class 10 Important Questions

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