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|Social Science (History)
|CBSE and State Boards
|Print Culture and the Modern World
|Important Questions & Answers
"If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things."- Albert Einstein
Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Important Questions & Answers
Q. No. 1) Fill in the Blanks:
- The earliest kind of print technology was developed in _________.
- _________ method of hand-printing was developed in China.
- _________ brought the knowledge of woodblock printing technique to Italy during the 13th century.
- The off-set press could print up to ______ colors at a time.
- The statement, “Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!” was made by _______.
- ________, _________, and _______ are some of the best-known women novelists during the 19th century.
- In 1920s England, popular works were sold in cheap series called _______.
- From 1780, __________ began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine.
- Istri Dharm Vichar was written by _________.
- _____ was the first full-length autobiography in the Bengali language and it was written by _______.
- China, Japan, and Korea.
- Woodblock printing.
- Marco Polo
- Louis-Sebastien Mercier
- Jane Austen, George Eliot, Bronte Sisters.
- Shilling Series
- James Augustus Hickey
- Ram Chaddha
- Amar Jiban, Rashsundari Debi
Q. No. 2) Multiple Choice Questions:
i. When did the Printing Press come to India?
b. Mid-16th century
d. None of the above
Ans. (c) Mid-16th century
ii. Which of the following books is the oldest Japanese book, printed in 868 AD containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations?
a. Diamond Sutra
Ans. (a) Diamond Sutra
iii. Consider the statements given below and choose the correct answer
Statement I: Western printing techniques and mechanical press were imported in the late 19th Century as Western powers established their outposts in China.
Statement II: Beijing became the hub of the new print culture, catering to Western-style schools.
a. Statement (i) is correct and (ii) is incorrect.
b. Statement (i) is incorrect and (ii) is correct
c. Both (i) & (ii) are incorrect
d. Both (i) & (ii) are correct
Ans. a. statement (i) is correct and (ii) is incorrect.
iv. By the mid-18th century who modified the power-driven cylindrical press?
a. Richard M. Hoe
b. Johann Guttenberg
c. Grimm Brothers
Ans. (a) Richard M. Hoe
v. There are two statements given below about the Print Revolution, marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.
- Assertion (A): The distribution, application, and preservation of knowledge were fundamentally altered with the invention of printing.
- Reason (R): Printing enabled intellectuals to produce, comment on, and evaluate texts that spread as ideas across Europe.
(a) A is true but R is false.
(b) A is false but R is true.
(c) Both A and R are true and R explains A.
(d) Both A and R are true but R does not explain A.
Ans. Option (c)
vi. At which of the following places, the Grimm Brothers spent years compiling traditional folk tales gathered from peasants?
Ans. (c) Germany
vii. Choose the term used to describe pocket-size books that are sold by traveling pedlars.
d. Biliotheque Bleue
Ans. (b) Chapbooks
viii. In ancient India which of the following material was used for writing manuscripts?
c. Palm leaves
Ans. (c) Palm leaves.
ix. What did Menocchio, the miller, do?
a. Commissioned artists
b. Enraged the Roman Catholic Church
c. Wrote the Adages
d. None of these
Ans. (b) Enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
x. What was Gutenberg’s first printed book?
d. None of these
Ans. (c) Bible.
xi. Look at the picture given below. Identify the name of the painter of this painting from the following options.
a. Abindra Nath Tagore
b. Rabindra Nath Tagore
c. Raja Ravi Verma
d. Samant Das Gupta
Ans. (c) Raja Ravi Verma.
xii. Who among the following was the author of the book ‘Gita Govind’?
Ans. (c) Jayadev.
xiii. Monica is reading an abstract written by Tarabai Shinde. Which of the following is MOST LIKELY to be the central issue of this text?
a. Religious indoctrination by priests
b. Miserable lives of farmers in debt
c. The plight of upper caste Hindu widows
d. The exploitation of children by factory owners
Ans. Option (c)
xiv. The Newspaper published in 1821 by Raja Rammohan Roy was _________.
a. Sambad Kaumudi
b. Samachar Chandrika
c. Jam-i-Jahan Nama
d. Shamsul Akhbar
Ans. (a) Sambad Kaumudi
xv. The woodcut painting given below was created during the time when Indians were beginning to accept the idea of women’s education in the late 19th century.
Which of the following scenarios was the artist MOST LIKELY trying to portray in this art piece?
a. Listening to music is the best way to spend one’s free time
b. Increasing popularity of the Western idea of marriage
c. Challenging the conventional gender roles
d. Pleasure is the ultimate goal of life
Ans. Option (c)
xvi. Arrange the following in chronological order:
- The print culture created the conditions for the French Revolution.
- Martin Luther’s writings led to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
- Menocchio reinterpreted the message of the Bible.
- Johann Gutenberg invented the Printing press.
a. 3, 2, 1, 4
b. 1, 2, 3, 4
c. 4, 3, 2, 1
d. 4, 2, 3, 1
Ans. (d) 4, 2, 3, 1
xvii. Name the seminary which guided the Muslims in their daily conduct.
a. Jesuit Seminary
b. Deoband Seminary
c. Mount Carroll Seminary
d. None of the above.
Ans. (b) Deoband Seminary
xviii. At which place did the catholic priests print the first Tamil book in 1579?
c. Tamil Nadu
Ans. (b) Cochin
xix. When was the Vernacular Press Act passed?
Ans. (c) 1878
Q. No. 3) Briefly describe China’s system of Woodblock printing.
- From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
- As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side.
- Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy (the art of beautiful and stylized writing).
Q. No. 4) “The production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books.” Give reasons to support this statement.
Explain any three factors responsible for the invention of new printing techniques.
Ans. Factors responsible for the invention of new printing techniques:
- Copying was an expensive, laborious, and time-consuming business.
- The manuscripts were highly expensive, fragile, and needed careful handling.
- The handwritten manuscripts production was not sufficient to meet the demand.
Q. No. 5) Who invented the printing press? How did he develop printing technology?
Ans. Johannes Gutenberg developed the first mechanical printing press.
- Most of his childhood was spent on a large agricultural estate where he saw wine and olive presses. He learned to polish stones and created lead moulds.
- The olive press was the model for the printing press and the moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.
Q. No. 6) Why did the new technology not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hand?
In what three ways did the printed books at first closely resemble the written manuscripts?
Ans. The new technology did not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hand:
- The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
- Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns and illustrations were painted.
- There was blank space for decoration in the books printed for the rich and the design was chosen by the buyer.
Q. No. 7) What was the Print Revolution?
Ans. Print Revolution:
- The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution.
- It changed people’s relationship with information and knowledge and with institutions and authorities.
- It influenced people’s perceptions and opened up new ways of looking at things.
Q. No. 8) How did the print bring the reading public and the hearing public closer?
Ans. Earlier society was divided into the reading public and the hearing public. The common people had the oral culture while the rich people had the reading culture. The common people heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited and folk tales narrated.
The reading culture was only limited to the elites and they only read books individually and silently. The reasons behind this culture were:
- The books were expensive
- The books were produced in fewer numbers
- The literacy rate was low in most European countries.
To bridge the gap between these two public, printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales, and such books were illustrated with pictures. These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in towns. Oral culture thus entered print and printed material was orally transmitted.
Q. No. 9) Not everyone welcomed the printed book. There was widespread criticism. What could have been the reason?
Ans. It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read, then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread.
Q. No. 10) What was the importance of the printing press in the spread of the Protestant Reformation?
Martin Luther remarked, "Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one." Explain his remarks in light of religious reforms that took place in Europe.
Ans. Importance of the printing press in the spread of the Protestant Reformation:
- In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety-Five Theses criticizing many of the practices of the Catholic Church.
- A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg.
- His writings were read and reproduced in vast numbers using the printing press.
- This print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere, which helped in the spread of new ideas. This also paved the way for the reformation of the practices of the church.
- This led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
- Print encouraged people to think reasonably and question the customs followed in the Church, which enraged the Roman Catholics.
Q. No. 11) Explain the effects of print culture in the religious sphere in early modern Europe.
Ans. The print culture helped in the circulation of ideas and introduced a new culture of debate and discussion. It was used by the rebellions to let the people know the truth and take action against the established authorities. The printed books were welcomed and also people had fear due to their rebellious and irreligious thoughts.
- Martin Luther was a religious reformer. He wrote Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 criticizing the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Menocchio, a miller in Italy, interpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
- The Roman Catholic Church started identifying such ideas, beliefs, and persons who wrote against the Church and thus Menocchio was hauled up twice and finally executed.
- Several restrictions were put over the publishers and the booksellers by the church and also the church began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.
Q. No. 12) “The print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred.” Support the statement by giving necessary arguments.
Ans. The print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred:
- Print popularized the ideas of enlightened thinkers like Voltaire and Rousseau. They attacked the sacred authority of the Church and the despotic power of the state. They wanted the rule of reason, questioning, and rationality.
- Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. This resulted in the re-evaluation of the values, norms, and institutions. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.
- By the 1780s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality. Cartoons and caricatures typically suggested that the monarchy remained only in sensual pleasures while the common people suffered immense hardships.
Q. No. 13) Write about the impact of the printing press on the lives of women in Europe.
Ans. The impact of the printing press on the lives of women in Europe were:
- Women became important readers as well as writers.
- Penny magazines and manuals teaching housekeeping and other such topics were printed especially for women.
- Women read as well as wrote novels.
- Some popular women writers were Jane Austen, The Bronte Sisters, and George Elliot.
- Their writings defined a new type of woman: a person with a will, the strength of personality, determination, and the power to think.
Q. No. 14) How were magazines different from novels? Write any three differences.
|1. Magazines had several stories.
|1. Novels had just one story.
|2. Magazines were periodically published.
|2. Novels were one-time publications.
|3. There might be several writers in one magazine.
|3. The novels had only one writer.
Q. No. 15) Briefly describe Indian manuscripts and their drawbacks.
Ans. Indian Manuscripts
- India had a rich tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian as well as vernacular languages.
- Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper and were sometimes beautifully illustrated.
- They were pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
- Manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile.
- They had to be handled carefully.
- They could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.
- So manuscripts were not used widely in daily life.
Q. No. 16) Why was James Augustus Hickey persecuted by Governor General Warren Hastings?
Ans. He published a lot of gossip about the East India Company’s officials in India.
Q. No. 17) Discuss the role of newspapers in shaping public opinion and the democratization of information during the modern period.
- It led to the dissemination of information.
- It served as a platform for shaping public discourse.
- It led to increased awareness of social, political, and economic issues.
Q. No. 18) How did the printing press lead to a new visual culture in India?
Ans. The printing press led to a new visual culture in India:
- Painters like Raja Ravi Verma produced images for mass circulation.
- Cheap prints and calendars became easily available and could be bought even by the poor to decorate their homes.
- These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition, religion and politics, and society and culture.
- By the 1870s caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers commenting on social and political issues.
- Some cartoons made fun of Indians blindly copying the West and criticized British rule over India while imperial caricatures made fun of Indian nationalists.
Q. No. 19) "Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside." Support the statement with suitable examples.
Provide evidence to support the claim that print culture had a significant impact on the social lives of women in India.
Ans. Print culture and its impact on women:
- The rise of print culture in India during the 19th century played a crucial role in awakening the social life of women. The printing press allowed women to access information, knowledge, and ideas that were previously inaccessible to them.
- Rashundari Devi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learned to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. It was the first full-length autobiography in Bengali.
- Many other women writers, like Kailashbhashini Debi, highlighted experiences of women like their imprisonment at home, ignorance, and unjust treatment in their writings.
- Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai narrated the plight of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows.
- Tamil writers expressed the poor status of women.
- By the early 20th century, journals written by women became popular, which highlighted issues like women's education, widowhood, and widow remarriage. Some of them highlighted fashion lessons to women and entertainment through short stories and serialized novels.
Q. No. 20) What was the Vernacular Press Act?
Ans. The vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878. It was modeled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the Government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press.
Q. No. 21) Match the following:
|Column A (Authors)
|Column B (Books)
|A. Rashsundari Debi
|i. Chhote Aur Bade ka Sawal
|B. Sudarshan Chakr
|iii. Amar Jiban
|D. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
|iv. Sacchi Kavitayen
Ans. A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii.
|Must Read: Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Notes
Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 NCERT Underlined PDF
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