Federalism Class 10 Most Important Questions and Answers

Get a comprehensive understanding of Chapter 2 Federalism (Class 10 Political Science) with our list of important questions and answers. Perfect for students preparing for Class 10 exams, these questions cover key concepts and topics in Federalism. Enhance your knowledge and ace your exams with ease!

federalism class 10 important questions and answers
SubjectSocial Science (Political Science)
BoardCBSE and State Boards
Chapter No.2
Chapter NameFederalism
TypeImportant Questions & Answers
Weightage 3 marks

"सफलता वोही कर सकता है जो सोचता है कि वह सक्षम है।"

- आपजी अब्दुल कलाम

Important Questions with Answers: Federalism Class 10

Q. No. 1) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

i. Belgium shifted from a unitary form of government to ____.

a. Democratic

b. Federal

c. Authoritarian

d. None of the above

Ans. Option (b)

ii. Look at the world map given below and answer the following question.

Federalism class 10 important questions

Which of the following deductions can DEFINITELY be made from the map?

a. Argentina is the largest federal country in South America.

b. Germany has states that share power with the center.

c. Asia has the maximum number of federal nations.

d. China does not have provincial administrations.

Ans. Option (b)

iii. Which countries follow the unitary system of government?

a. Belgium, Spain, and India

b. USA, Japan, and Belgium

c. United Arab Emirates, China, and Sri Lanka

d. France, Germany, and India

Ans. Option (c)

iv. The central government is more powerful in relation to the states in a _____.

a. Unitary government

b. Coming together federation

c. Democratic government

d. Holding together federation

Ans. Option (a)

v. Which of the following countries is an example of a ‘Coming Together Federation’?

a. India

b. Sri Lanka

c. USA

d. Belgium

Ans. Option (c)

vi. What is the originally provided system of the Constitution of India?

a. A two-tier system of government

b. A three-tier system of government

c. A single-tier system of government

d. A four-tier system of government

Ans. Option (a)

vii. Identify the correct statement(s) about the theory of Federalism in the Indian Constitution.

  1. The Constitution declared India as a Union of States.
  2. Sharing of power between the Union Government and the State government is basic to the structure of the Constitution.
  3. It is easy to make changes to this power-sharing arrangement.
  4. The parliament can on its own change this arrangement.


a. 1 & 2

b. 2 & 3

c. 1 & 3

d. 2 & 4

Ans. Option (a)

viii. Match the following items given in Column A with those in Column B.

Column AColumn B
I. Information Technology1. Concurrent List
II. Police2. Union List
III. Education3. State List
IV. Defence4. Residuary Subjects

Choose the correct answer from the option given below:

a. I-4, II-3, III-1, IV-2

b. I-3, II-4, III-1, IV-2

c. I-4, II-1, III-3, IV-2

d. I-4, II-2, III-1, IV-3

Ans. Option (a)

ix. Which one of the following subjects comes under the legislation of the Centre and State in India?

a. Education

b. Forests

c. Banking

d. Trade

Ans. Option (a)

x. Which of the following subjects is not included in the Union list?

a. Defence

b. Foreign affairs

c. Police

d. Banking

Ans. Option (c)

xi. Which of the following subjects is not included in the state list?

a. Law and order

b. National defense

c. Education

d. Agriculture

Ans. Option (b)

xii. Which administrative authority legislates on Residuary subjects?

a. Union Government

b. State Government

c. Local Government

d. All of the above

Ans. Option (a)

xiii. In India’s federal system, the Central and the State governments have the power to legislate on all those subjects which are included in the _____.

a. Union list

b. State list

c. Concurrent list

d. Residuary subjects

Ans. Option (c)

xiv. Which of the following options proves that India is a quasi-federal state?

  1. More powers with Centre
  2. Residuary subjects with Centre
  3. Equal subjects with Centre and State
  4. Currency and Railways with Centre


a. 1, 3 & 4

b. 1, 2 & 4

c. 2, 3 & 4

d. 1, 2 & 3

Ans. Option (b)

xv. The parliament can bring about a change in the power-sharing arrangement between the central and the state governments when _____.

a. It is passed by the Rajya Sabha.

b. It is passed by both Houses of Parliament with a two-thirds majority.

c. It is passed by both Houses of Parliament with a one-third majority.

d. It is passed by Lok Sabha.

Ans. Option (b) [The Parliament cannot on its own change this arrangement. Any change to it has to be first passed by both Houses of Parliament with at least a two-thirds majority. Then it has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total states.]

xvi. Identify the group of states that were not created on the basis of language.

a. Nagaland, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand

b. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

c. Karnataka, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand

d. Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand

Ans. Option (d)

xvii. Which of the following states of India enjoy special powers under Article 371(A) of the Constitution of India?

a. Nagaland

b. Rajasthan

c. Punjab

d. Tamil Nadu

Ans. Option (a)

xviii. How many scheduled languages are recognized by the Indian Constitution?

a. 19 languages besides Hindi

b. 21 languages besides Hindi

c. 18 languages besides Hindi

d. 22 languages besides Hindi

Ans. Option (b)

xix. Anita is appearing in an examination conducted for recruitment to Central Government positions. In how many languages as mentioned in the 8th Schedule can she opt to take the exam?

a. 18

b. 21

c. 22

d. 25

Ans. Option (c)

xx. How does Judiciary act as an umpire in a federal nation?

a. Judiciary rules over Centre and State

b. Centre and Judiciary work collectively

c. Courts can change the structure of the Constitution

d. Courts use the power to interpret the Constitution

Ans. Option (d)

xxi. Identify the administrative system of the Indian Government with the help of the following information.

  • Power is shared between Central and State Governments to Local Governments.
  • It is called the third tier of the Government.
  • The State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with them.

Select the appropriate option from the following:

a. Federal system

b. Unitary Federal system

c. Decentralized system

d. Unitary system

Ans. Option (c)

xxii. Which of the following statements are true with respect to decentralization in India after 1992?

  1. No seats were reserved for SC/ST in the elected bodies.
  2. State governments have to share some powers and revenues with the local bodies.
  3. It became mandatory to hold regular elections for local government bodies.
  4. Local governments did not have any powers or resources of their own.


a. 1 and 2

b. 2 and 4

c. 2 and 3

d. 3 and 4

Ans. Option (c)

xxiii. The system of Panchayati Raj involves

a. The village, block, and district levels

b. The village and state levels

c. The village, district, and state levels

d. The village, state, and union levels

Ans. Option (a)

xxiv. Who conducts Panchayat elections?

a. Central government

b. Zila Parishad

c. State Election Commission

d. State government

Ans. Option (c)

xxv. Which of these is not a function of Gram Sabha?

a. Supervising the work of Gram Panchayat

b. Approving the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat

c. Making decisions for the village

d. Supervising the work of the Zila Parishad

Ans. Option (d)

xxvi. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List IList II
1. Union of IndiaA. Prime Minister
2. StateB. Sarpanch
3. Municipal CorporationC. Governor
4. Gram PanchayatD. Mayor


a. 1-D, 2-A, 3-B, 4-C

b. 1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A

c. 1-A, 2-C, 3-D, 4-B

d. 1-C, 2-D, 3-A, 4-B

Ans. Option (c)

Q. No. 2) Define the term federalism.

Ans. Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Both these levels of government, the central and the state, enjoy their powers independently of each other.

Q. No. 3) How is a federal government different from a unitary form of government? Why are federations preferred these days?
Distinguish between the Unitary and Federal systems of government.


Unitary GovernmentFederal Government
i. It has only one level of government.i. It has two or more levels of government.
ii. The sub-units are subordinate to the center.ii. The central government cannot order the state government to do something.
iii. The sub-units are answerable to the central government.iii. The sub-units are not answerable to the central government. Both are separately answerable to the people.

A federation is preferred because:

  • It helps in making administration effective and efficient.
  • It helps to accommodate all diverse groups.
Q. No. 4) State the main features of Federalism.

Ans. The main features of Federalism are:

  • There are two or more levels of government.
  • Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation, and administration.
  • The powers and functions of each tier of government are specified and guaranteed by Constitution.
  • The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both levels of government.
  • Sources of revenue between different levels are specified by the Constitution.
  • Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.
Q. No. 5) Differentiate between the ‘Coming Together Federation’ and ‘Holding Together Federation’ with examples.


Coming Together FederationHolding Together Federation
i. 'Coming Together Federations' are formed when independent states come together to form a bigger state.i. 'Holding Together Federations' are formed when a large country decides to divide itself into sub-units.
ii. The state governments are strong in comparison to the central government.ii. The central government is strong in comparison to the state government.
iii. All state governments have equal power.iii. Very often the state governments have unequal powers.
iv. Example: the USA, Switzerland, and Australia.iv. Example: India, Spain, and Belgium.
Q. No. 6) Which provisions of Indian Constitution make India a full-fledged federation?
Mention any five main features which make India a federal country.

Ans. The following are the five provisions that make India a federal country:

  • Two or more levels of government: India has three levels of government (Centre, State, and Local levels).
  • Three lists: The powers are divided between the Centre and the States by three lists – Union list, State list, and Concurrent list.
  • Rigid Constitution: The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both levels of government.
  • Financial Autonomy: The revenue sources of both the Centre and States have been clearly defined, which ensures financial autonomy to both the Centre and the State.
  • Independent Judiciary: The Supreme Court has been given the power to settle disputes between different levels of government.
Q. No. 7) Explain the process of power sharing among different organs of the government in India.
Describe the three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments. Who can make laws on the subjects which are not covered under these lists and what name has been given to such subjects?
Describe the division of powers between the Central and the State Governments in India.

Ans. The Constitution provided a threefold distribution of legislative powers – Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. Thus it contains three lists:

  • Union List includes subjects of national importance like foreign affairs, defense, etc. The Union Government alone can make laws on these subjects.
  • State List contains subjects of state and local importance like police, trade, etc. The State Government alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list.
  • The concurrent List includes subjects of common interest like education, forests, agriculture, etc. Both the Union and the State Governments can make laws on the subject mentioned in this list. In case of a dispute, the law made by the Union government will prevail.

The subjects which are not covered under these lists or subjects like computer software that came up after the constitution was made are called “Residuary subjects”. According to our constitution, the Union Government has the power to legislate on these subjects.

Q. No. 8) “Indian Constitution has a unitary bias.” Support the statement with examples.


  • The power-sharing arrangement between the union and the state given in the Constitution of India clearly distributes power between the two. In this sense, it is federal but the system becomes unitary when the residuary power rests with the union.
  • The Constitution did not use the word ‘Federation’ but it has the division of powers into a three-tier system of the central government, the state government, and the local governments.
  • Each level of the government has its own jurisdiction to legislate. But we have a centralized federation in which the Union government carries more powers than the state governments. The Union government has 97 subjects, whereas State, as well as Concurrent lists, have less number of subjects.
Q. No. 9) 'Independence of the Judiciary is the key to the success of federalism.' Examine the statement.


  • The judiciary with the Supreme Court at the apex is the sole interpreter of the Indian Constitution.
  • It plays a pivotal role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures.
  • In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.
Q. No. 10) Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which were the policies adopted by India that ensured this success? Explain.

Ans. The success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. This ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity, and desire for living together became shared ideals in our country.

The policies adopted by India that ensured this success are:

  • Linguistic states: Many old states have vanished and many new states have been created. Areas, boundaries, and names of the states have been changed. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state. Some states were created to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity, or geography.
  • Language policy: Indian constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution. States too have their own official languages.
  • Centre-State relations: Restructuring Centre-State relations have strengthened federalism in practice. After 1990, there was a rise of many regional political parties and it was the era of coalition governments at the center. This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of state governments.
  • Decentralization: In 1992, the Constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective. The local government includes Panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas.
Q. No. 11) Write a brief note on the language policy adopted in India.
Our Constitution has taken a number of measures to safeguard different languages. Explain.

Ans. Language Policy adopted in India:

  • No language was given the status of national language by our constitution. Hindi was identified as the official language. But only about 40% of Indians have Hindi as their mother tongue.
  • Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled languages by the Constitution. A candidate in any examination conducted for the central government position may opt to take the examination in any of these languages.
  • States have their own official language and all government work takes place in the official language of the state.
Q. No. 12) What is decentralization in democracy? What are the advantages of decentralization in democracy?

Ans. Decentralization: When power is taken away from central and state government and given to local government it is called decentralization.

The advantages of decentralization in a democracy are:

  • The basic idea behind decentralization is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities.
  • They know better where to spend money and how to manage things efficiently.
  • Besides, at the local level, it is possible for people to directly participate in decision-making. This helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation.
Q. No. 13) Explain the provisions that have been made towards decentralization in India after the Constitutional Amendment in 1992.
How has the third tier of government in our country been made more effective and powerful by the Constitutional Amendment of 1992?

Ans. Major steps were taken by Indian Government toward decentralization in 1992:

  • Constitution mandate to hold regular elections for local government bodies.
  • Reservation of seats in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other Backward Classes.
  • Reservation of at least one-third of all positions for women.
  • Creation of an independent institution called the State Election Commission in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
  • The state governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies.
Q. No. 14) What is a Gram Sabha? Write the functions of a Gram Sabha.

Ans. Gram Sabha: All the voters in a village constitute a Gram Sabha.

Functions of a Gram Sabha:

  • To approve the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat.
  • To review the performance of the Gram Panchayat.
  • To elect the members of the Gram Panchayat.
Q. No. 15) “Local governments have made a significant impact on Indian democracy. At the same time, there are many difficulties.” Explain.

Ans. Impact of local self-government on Indian democracy:

  • Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
  • It has increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.


  • Elections are not held regularly and enthusiastically.
  • Gram Sabhas are not held regularly.
  • Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
  • Local governments are not given adequate resources.
Must Read: Federalism Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2 Important Questions & Answers
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Class 10 Important Questions

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12 thoughts on “Federalism Class 10 Most Important Questions and Answers”

  1. Sir,
    The important questions and answers which you have given is enough to learn Federalism chapter.
    Because my 1st term exams are going to start from 4th April 2023.

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