If you're a Class 10 student studying Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources, you'll want to have comprehensive notes that is based on the latest 2023-24 syllabus to help you prepare for your exams. This guide covers all the important topics, including the importance of forests and wildlife, conservation efforts, and the impact of human activities on these resources. With these notes, you'll be well-equipped to succeed in your studies.
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जीवन की सबसे बड़ी चुनौती उसे अवसर में बदलना है, जब लोग आपको निराश कर देते हैं।
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes
Table of Contents
Biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes they contain, and the ecosystems they form.
Importance of Biodiversity
- The plants, animals, and micro-organisms re-create the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the soil that produces our food without which we cannot survive.
- Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
- The forest ecosystems are repositories of some of the country's most valuable forest products, minerals, and other resources that meet the demands of the rapidly expanding industrial-urban economy.
Forests play a key role in the ecological system
- These are the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
- It supports diverse flora and fauna which are part of our life.
- It provides us with fruits, flowers, medicine, wood, etc.
Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India
Need for Conservation:
- Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems – water, air, and soil.
- It also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding.
- Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity.
Steps taken for conservation:
- The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting habitats.
- An all-India list of protected species was also published.
- The main focus was on protecting the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife.
- Central and many state governments established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
- The central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were seriously threatened such as tigers, one-horned rhinoceros, etc.
- The major threats to the tiger population are numerous, such as poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, growing human population, etc.
- Since India and Nepal provide habitat to about two-thirds of the surviving tiger population in the world, these two nations became prime targets for poaching and illegal trading.
- “Project Tiger”, one of the most well-publicized wildlife campaigns in the world, was launched in 1973.
- Tiger conservation has been viewed not only as an effort to save an endangered species but with equal importance as a means of preserving biotypes of sizeable magnitude.
- Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand,
- Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal,
- Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh,
- Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan,
- Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam
- Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala are some of the tiger reserves of India.
Types of Forests and Wildlife Resources
Types of forests found in India:
- Reserved forests: More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forests. Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources is concerned.
- Protected forests: Almost 1/3rd of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department. This forest land is protected from any further depletion.
- Unclassed forests: These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
* Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanent forests.
Distribution of Forests and Wildlife Resources
- Reserved Forests: Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests of its total forest area.
- Protected Forests: Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, and Rajasthan have a bulk of it under protected forests.
- Unclassed Forests: All Northeastern states and parts of Gujarat have a very high percentage of their forests as unclassed forests managed by local communities.
Community and Conservation
Role of the community in forest and wildlife conservation:
- In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve forests (their habitat) along with government officials.
- In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
- The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
- The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas successfully resisted deforestation and showed that community afforestation with indigenous species can be enormously successful.
- Farmers and citizen groups like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that diversified crop production without the use of synthetic chemicals is possible and economically viable.
- Joint Forest Management is a program that involves local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
Joint Forest Management (JFM)
- JFM furnishes a good example for involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
- The program has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Odisha passed the first resolution for joint forest management.
- JFM depends on the formation of local (village) institutions that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department.
- In return, the members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timbers forest produces and share in the timber harvested by ‘successful protection'.
- Sacred groves are a form of nature worship practiced by the tribal people of India. Tribes consider forests as Gods and Goddesses and preserve them in their pristine form. These patches of forest or parts of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned.
- Certain societies revere a particular tree that they have preserved from time immemorial. The Mundas and the Santhal of the Chota Nagpur region worship mahua and kadamba trees, and the tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship the tamarind and mango trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred.
- Sacred qualities are often ascribed to springs, mountain peaks, plants, and animals which are closely protected.
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Important Questions and Answers
Class 10 Revision Notes
Class 10 Important Questions
Map work for Class 10 SSt 2023-24
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