Agriculture Class 10 Notes: Learn from the Best

Agriculture is an important topic in Class 10 Social Science, and it is covered in Chapter 4 of the Geography textbook. The CBSE 2023-24 Board exams are coming up, and it is important for students to be well-prepared for this topic.

This blog post will provide students with comprehensive notes on Agriculture Class 10 based on the latest revised Syllabus for 2023-24. These notes have been compiled by experts, and they cover all of the important concepts that students need to know for their exams.

Students are encouraged to read these notes carefully and to use them to prepare for their exams. By following the advice in these notes, students can be confident that they will be able to ace their Agriculture Class 10 exams.

So what are you waiting for? Start learning today!

agriculture class 10 notes

SubjectSocial Science (Geography)
BoardCBSE and State Boards
Chapter No.4
Chapter NameAgriculture
Weightage 05 marks

"अगर आप सपने नहीं देखेंगे तो उन्हें पूरा कैसे कर पाएंगे?"

- दृढ़ता सिंह

Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Agriculture is the mainstay of India due to the following reasons:

  • Two-thirds of the population is engaged in agricultural activities.
  • An age-old economic activity of India.
  • Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume.
  • Besides food grains, it also produces raw materials for various industries.
  • Some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, etc., are also exported.

Types of Farming

1. Primitive Subsistence Farming

The characteristics of primitive subsistence farming are:

  • In this type of farming, farmers grow crops for self-consumption.
  • It is practiced on small patches of land.
  • Farmers use primitive tools like hoe, dao, digging sticks, etc.
  • Completely depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil, and suitability of other environmental conditions for the crops grown.
  • Only family labor is used for farming.
  • Land productivity is low.
  • It is also known as slash-and-burn agriculture.

Slash and Burn Agriculture: Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their families. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. This type of shifting allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes. Land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs.

It is known by different names in different parts of India:

  • Jhumming in north-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.
  • Pamlou in Manipur
  • Dipa in Bastar district of Chattishgarh and in Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Slash-and-burn farming or shifting agriculture is known by different names in different countries

  • Mexico and Central America – Milpa
  • Venzuela – Conuco
  • Brazil – Roca
  • Vietnam – Ray
  • Central Africa – Masole.

2. Intensive Subsistence Farming

This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labor-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used to obtain higher production.

The ‘right of inheritance’ leading to the division of land among successive generations has rendered land-holding size uneconomical.

3. Commercial Farming

The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.

Plantation: The plantation is a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area using capital-intensive inputs, with the help of migrant laborers.

Examples: Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, etc.

Characteristics of plantation farming:

  • Plantations have very large areas.
  • Capital-intensive inputs are used.
  • Migrant labor is used.
  • It is done mainly for the market. The sole aim is to earn profit.
  • It has an interface between agriculture and industry.
  • All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.

Cropping Pattern

India has three cropping seasons — rabi, kharif, and zaid.

  • Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram, etc. are the main rabi crops.
  • Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in June-July and harvested in September-October. Rice, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, cotton, jute, groundnut, etc. are the main kharif crops.
  • In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Some of the crops of this season are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and fodder crops.

Major Crops

Food CropsNon-food Crops
Rice, Wheat, Millets, Maize, Pulses, Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Tea, Coffee, Horticulture CropsRubber, Cotton, Jute

1. Rice

Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of people in India.

Growing conditions required for rice are:

  • Temperature: High temperature (above 25°C).
  • Rainfall: High humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • Agricultural season: Kharif crop
  • Major producing areas: West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.

For Map Work on this Chapter please see Map Work for Class 10 2023-24.

2. Wheat

Wheat is the second staple food crop of a majority of people in India.

Growing conditions required for wheat are:

  • Temperature: It requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
  • Rainfall: 50-75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.
  • Agricultural season: Rabi crop
  • Major producing areas: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan.

There are two important wheat-growing zones in the country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and the black soil region of the Deccan.

3. Millets

Jowar, bajra, and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value.

Jowar: Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. The major Jowar-producing States are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.

Bajra: Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Major Bajra-producing States are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Haryana.

Ragi: Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils. Major ragi-producing states are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand, and Arunachal Pradesh. Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients, and roughage.

4. Maize

It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop that requires a temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil.

Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

5. Pulses

  • A major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
  • Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
  • Pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops because pulses being leguminous crops help restore soil fertility (except arhar) by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • Major pulse-producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka.

6. Sugarcane

  • Sugarcane grows well in a hot and humid climate
  • Requires a temperature of 21°C to 27°C
  • Needs annual rainfall between 75cm and 100cm
  • Irrigation is required in regions of low rainfall.
  • It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labor from sowing to harvesting. All these conditions are available in Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggary), khandsari, and molasses.
  • The major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

7. Oil Seeds

Major oil seeds produced in India are :

  • Groundnut
  • Mustard
  • Coconut
  • Sesamum (til)
  • Soyabean
  • Castor seeds

The importance of oilseeds are:

  • Most of the oilseeds are edible and used as cooking mediums.
  • Used as raw materials in the production of soap, cosmetics, and ointments.

The importance of groundnut are:

  • Most of the oilseeds are edible and used as cooking mediums.
  • Used as raw materials in the production of soap, cosmetics, and ointments.

8. Tea

Geographical conditions needed for the cultivation of tea are:

  • Tea grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require a warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.

Two major tea-producing states are Assam and West Bengal (hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts).

9. Coffee

The Arabica variety initially brought from Yemen is produced in the country. This variety is in great demand all over the world.

Initially, its cultivation was introduced in the Baba Budan Hills and even today its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

10. Horticulture Crops

In 2018, India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China. India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.

11. Rubber

  • Rubber is an important raw material for industries.
  • Geographical conditions: It is an equatorial crop. It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25°C.
  • Two rubber-producing states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, etc.

Fiber Crops

  • Cotton, jute, hemp, and natural silk are the four major fiber crops grown in India.
  • The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves, especially mulberry.
  • The rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fiber is known as sericulture.

12. Cotton

The geographical conditions required to grow cotton are:

  • Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
  • It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days, and bright sun-shine for its growth.
  • It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
  • Major cotton-producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc.

13. Jute

The geographical conditions required to grow jute (also known as golden fiber) are:

  • Grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
  • High temperature is required during the time of growth.

It is used in making:

  • Gunny bags
  • Mats
  • Ropes
  • Yarn
  • Carpets, etc.

Technological and Institutional Reforms

We need technical and institutional reforms in agriculture because:

  1. Sustained uses of land without compatible techno-institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development.
  2. In spite of the development of sources of irrigation, most of the farmers still depend upon monsoons and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture.
  3. Agriculture which provides a livelihood for more than 60 % of its population, needs some serious technical and institutional reforms.

Institutional reforms

  1. Collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation, and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms after Independence.
  2. Laws of land reforms were enacted.
  3. Provision of crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and disease.
  4. Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies, and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
  5. Introduction of Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).

Technological reforms

  1. Green revolution and white revolution (operation flood)
  2. HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides were provided.
  3. Methods of irrigation modernized.
  4. Latest agricultural equipment introduced.
  5. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers were introduced on Radio and Television.
  6. Announcement of minimum support price (MSP), remunerative, and procurement prices for important crops.

Bhoodan and Gramdan

It is called a bloodless revolution because some zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless, and many landowners chose to provide some part of their land to the poor farmers due to the fear of the Land Ceiling Act.

Must Read: Agriculture Class 10 Important Questions & Answers
Agriculture Class 10 NCERT Underlined PDF
Map Items for Class 10 SSt
Must Read:
Class 10 Revision Notes
Class 10 Important Questions

Hope you liked these Notes on Agriculture Class 10 Geography. Please share this with your friends and do comment if you have any doubts/suggestions to share.

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1 thought on “Agriculture Class 10 Notes: Learn from the Best”

  1. Saptarshi Bhattacharya

    Sir, You have mistakenly written the geographical conditions of cotton in jute section, please remove that sir when you get time and if there are some important points in that place please dont forget to add them like the jute producing states or more . Thank you !

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